فرمول، نکات، مثال، انواع و آموزش گرامر relative pronouns

فرمول، نکات، مثال، انواع و آموزش گرامر relative pronouns

نوشتن یک رایتینگ cohesive / coherent (منسجم) برای هر دو task امتحان آیلتس، به ویژه تسک 2 بسیار مهم است. شما باید رایتینگ را برای ممتحن به نحوی بنویسید که درک آن آسان باشد. استفاده از relative pronouns در کسب نمره بالا کلیدی است.

یکی از راه های بهبود cohesion ، استفاده از ضمایر یا pronouns برای کاهش تکرار است. در معیارهای نمره‌دهی رایتینگ آیلتس “Referencing” ذکر شده است.

  1. coherent  = united as or forming a whole
  2. cohesive = united and working together effectively
  3. coherence and cohesion = همگرایی و همبستگی
لیست مطالب

Referencing in IELTS, avoiding repetition using pronouns, IELTS writing

referencing چیست؟

referencing زمانی است که شما به چیزی که قبلاً گفته اید بدون نیاز به تکرار مداوم آن مراجعه کنید. شما می توانید این کار را با استفاده از ضمایر (they, them, this, their, it, these) انجام دهید. در بین بسیاری از دانشجویان آیلتس (و اساتید آیلتس) یک باور غلط وجود دارد که شما هرگز نباید کلمات را تکرار کنید.

برخی از کلمات می توانند تکرار شوند، به شرطی که این کار خیلی زیاد انجام نشود. بدیهی است که شما باید واژگان و دستور زبان خود را در هر کجا که ممکن است تغییر دهید، با این حال، گاهی اوقات پیدا کردن یک مترادف یا پارافریز خوب دشوار است.

یادآوری می‌شود که Referencing در بخش speaking امتحان آیلتس بسیار مهم است.

معیارهای نمره‌دهی IELTS برای Coherence and Cohesion چه می‌گوید:

از معیارهای علامت گذاری شده مشخص است که شما برای عبور از نمره 6 نیاز به توسعه این مهارت دارید. به یاد داشته باشید که رایتینگ باید جریان طبیعی داشته باشد و دنبال کردن آن برای خواننده آسان باشد.

مثال برای relative pronouns

در اینجا دو مثال از مقاله ای در مورد مشکل چاقی و راه حل های احتمالی آن آمده است.
قرمز = ضمایر ،  آبی = تکرار

With referencing

One of the reasons that people are becoming overweight these days is that they are eating more junk food, ready meals and convenience food rather than cooking healthy meals at home. This is because many people tend to lead a busy life and after a long day at work it is easier to just buy ready meals in the supermarket or get a takeaway. For instance, In the UK, sales of these types of foods have risen considerably since the 1990s, this is because busy people see cooking at home as time-consuming. To tackle this issue the government should take steps to increase tax on high fat, high sugar or unhealthy foods, therefore, consumers would think twice about the foods they consume, which could lead to them losing weight.

Without referencing

One of the reasons that people are becoming overweight these days is that people are eating more junk food, ready meals and convenience food rather than cooking healthy meals at home. People are eating more junk food and ready meals because many people tend to lead a busy life and after a long day at work, instead of cooking at home most people prefer to buy ready meals in the supermarket or get a takeaway. For instance, In the UK, sales of takeaways and ready meals have risen considerably since the 1990s, The urge to buy ready meals and convenience foods is because busy people see cooking at home as time-consuming. To tackle the problem of people being overweight, the government should take steps to increase the tax on high fat, high sugar or unhealthy foods, therefore, consumers would think twice about the foods consumers consume, which could lead to consumers losing weight.

بنابراین می بینید که مثال دوم برای ممتحن سخت است. مثال اول با ضمایر مختصر و منسجم تر (concise and cohesive) آمده است.

For Example:

One of the reasons that people are becoming overweight these days is that they are eating more junk food.

people = they

Therefore consumers would think twice about the foods they consume, which could lead to them losing weight.

consumers = they, them

استفاده از ضمایر نسبی چگونه است؟

برای پیوستگی جملات می توانید از ضمایر نسبی (relative pronouns) نیز استفاده کنید، اینها relative clauses ایجاد می کنند. کلماتی مانند: who / that / which / when / where…

به عنوان مثال، کدام یک از جملات زیر بهتر است؟

  1. In some countries, the government invests a lot of money in public transportation. Investing money in public transportation leads to fewer cars on the road and helps to reduce CO2 emissions.
  2. In some countries, the government invests a lot of money in public transportation. This leads to fewer cars on the road and helps to reduce CO2 emissions.
  3. In some countries, the government invests a lot of money in public transportation, which leads to fewer cars on the road and helps to reduce CO2 emissions.

اولین جمله referencing ضعیف را نشان می دهد.

جمله دوم خوب است اما می تواند بهبود یابد.

جمله سوم بسیار بهتر است و دستور زبان قویتری را نشان می‌دهد.

تست relative pronouns

در اینجا برخی از عبارات برای بیان عقاید افراد با دلایل و اطلاعات بیشتر آورده شده است. این جملات را فقط حفظ نکنید، تمرین کنید که چگونه از این موارد به طور طبیعی در نوشتن خود استفاده کنید. شما باید روی سبک نوشتن خود کار کنید.

they / it / their / they / this / our / they / it / which / they

1. Property prices tend to be very high in big cities, _______  means that many people cannot afford to buy a house.

2. Some people believe that children should not be given homework because _____ is not necessary for ______ education. ____  think that teachers should focus on more creative ways to teach subjects.

3. One important advantage of labour-saving machines and household appliances is that ______ are more efficient and save time because housework takes up a lot of time and energy.

4. I think ____ is very important that the government maintains and restores old buildings as ______ are a reflection of _____ cultural heritage.

5. Many old buildings protected by law are part of a nation’s history. Some people think _______ should be knocked down and replaced by new ones.

6. Violent crime is a concern in many societies and some hold the view that _______  cannot be solved.

Answers:

1. Property prices tend to be very high in big cities, which means that many people cannot afford to buy a house.

2. Some people believe that children should not be given homework because it is not necessary for their education. They think that teachers should focus on more creative ways to teach subjects.

3. One important advantage of labour-saving machines and household appliances is that they are more efficient and save time because housework takes up a lot of time and energy.

4. I think it is very important that the government maintains and restores old buildings as they are a reflection of our cultural heritage.

5. Many old buildings protected by law are part of a nation’s history. Some people think they should be knocked down and replaced by new ones.

6. Violent crime is a concern in many societies and some hold the view that this cannot be solved.

سایر منابع

امتیاز (فرمول، نکات، مثال، انواع و آموزش گرامر relative pronouns)
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