استفاده از Collocation در رایتینگ آیلتس
برخی از مهمترین واژگان مورد نیاز برای رایتینگ آیلتس، Collocationها هستند. استفاده از Collocation در رایتینگ آیلتس، برای امتیاز بالاتر ضروری است. Collocation ها دویا چند کلمه هستند که در زبان انگلیسی با هم مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند.
به عنوان مثال، بکارگیری کلمه “use money” در انگلیسی صحیح نیست، بلکه کالوکیشن درست “spend money” است. اگر کسی با صدای بلند صحبت میکند، ما نمیتوانیم بگوییم که “he has a big voice” ، بجای آن از عبارت “he has a loud voice” استفاده میکنیم، یا وقتی یک شخص بی ادب یا لاف را توصیف میکنیم، کالوکیشن “big mouth” صحیح تر از “large mouth” است. همچنین عبارت “look at a movie” زمانی که یک فیلم را نگاه میکنیم اشتباه است، بجای آن از “watch a movie” استفاده میکنیم. برای روشن تر شدن موضوع Collocation، مثالها و تمرینات زیادی در این آموزش Collocation آمده است.
برای اینکه بتوانیم مانند افراد انگلیسی زبان طبیعی صحبت کنیم و بنویسیم باید Collocation ها را بشناسیم. کالوکیشن ها در اصل تسریع کننده ایجاد ارتباط در زبان انگلیسی هستند. کالوکیشن ها موجب می شوند سریع بخوانیم ،طبیعی تر صحبت کنیم و مانند یک فرد انگلیسی زبان بنویسیم.
Why are collocations so important?
In the marking criteria in IELTS, you are marked on Lexical Resource (vocabulary). You will be marked on the way you use collocations in the writing section. Here is what it says in the Public Band Descriptors about Writing task 2 Band 7.
- uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision
- uses less common lexical items with some awareness of style and collocation
- may produce occasional errors in word choice, spelling and/or word formation
Not only are collocations in IELTS important for writing, but they are also useful in the speaking test. They give your speech a smooth natural flow, which if used well can help you get a Band 7 or more in the speaking test. You have to know how to use them correctly though.
There are quite a few patterns such as:
- Verb + Noun
- Verb + Adverb
- Adjective + Noun
- Adverb + Adjective
- Noun + Noun
- Collocations with ‘have’ or ‘take’
Let’s take a look at some example sentences.
These are for example purposes only. I always advise against just memorising vocabulary because the IELTS examiners are trained to spot that. Try using them in your own sentences and get feedback from a teacher if possible.
Verb Adverb collocations
a) The customer complained bitterly about the terrible service.
b) The guests were welcomed warmly when they arrived at the party.
c) She spoke loudly over the phone because the signal wasn’t very good.
d) He smiled proudly when he got his IELTS exam results.
e) He apologised profusely after bumping into the man and spilling his drink.
f) She is a very gentle person who speaks softly.
Adjective Noun collocations
a) The boy shows a keen interest in going to University and becoming a Doctor.
b) We had a brief chat about our travel plans next week.
c) There was heavy snow overnight, the roads were all blocked.
d) I was given invaluable advice from the teacher about doing the reading test.
e) He suggested going to the beach. It was a fantastic idea so we all decided to go.
f) There is a strong possibility that the climate will get warmer over the next two decades.
Adverb Adjective collocations
a) I was utterly shocked by his bad behaviour.
b) She is totally satisfied with her Band 8 score in IELTS
c) It is incredibly stupid to drink and drive.
d) The weather is rather cold for this time of year.
e) The new laws about internet privacy are pretty worrying.
f) I’m extremely interested in getting a Band 9 in IELTS.
Noun Noun collocations
a) There was a ceasefire agreement by the rebel groups.
b) I bought a loaf of bread and a can of coke.
c) He bought a round of drinks for his friends
d) He got a round of applause after his performance
e) They work in the service industry.
f) You need a building permit to build a house.
Collocations with ‘Have’ or ‘Take’
In British English the word ‘have’ is quite popular, for example: have a bath, have a look, have a break. In American English, the word ‘take’ is often used such as : take a bath, take a vacation, take a look.
- Have a bath – Take a bath
- Have a drink
- Have a look – Take a look
- Have lunch
- Have fun
- Have a rest – Take a rest
- Have a holiday – Take a vacation
- Have a seat – Take a seat
- Have a haircut
- Have a wash
- Have a shave
- Have a nice day
- Have something to eat
- Have a laugh
- Have a tough time
So you need to now take action (take action – verb noun collocation !) and start your IELTS collocations notebook, remember to make sentences and use them in speaking.
Collocations and Phrasal verbs
English is full of two-part verbs, sometimes called phrasal verbs. They frequently have 3 words,which can be found everywhere in reading texts, speaking and listening. Collocations are 3 or 4 words that go together and there are various patterns. Here are some examples of Phrasal verbs and collocations.
Phrasal verbs examples:
Switch on the light
Pick up your books
He looks down on poor people
Let’s eat out tonight
I checked into the hotel
I have run out of money
I look forward to meeting you again
You can see that some of these are 3-word phrasal verbs. The structure is a verb+preposition
He is a heavy sleeper
We threw a party for his birthday
She is a high-level politician
We had heavy rain last night
I have deep admiration for him
It was a big decision
He complained bitterly
She gave me invaluable advice
Collocations are different from phrasal verbs and their structure is varied such as adjective+noun, verb+adverb, verb+noun.
What collocations fit into the sentences below?. Try it first then check your answers.
- Mr. Smith was __________ welcomed when he arrived at the conference.
- There was _______ rain all night, so the streets were flooded.
- Many people ________ questions about the governments new immigration policy.
- Most developed countries are ________ priority to the implementation of renewable energy.
- We _______ a reservation for a room in the hotel.
- She _________ profusely for arriving late for the meeting.
- I needed to _______ a haircut so I went to the barbers.
- Hello Mr. Smith, please ______ a seat.
- I was given ___________ advice about preparing for IELTS writing task 2.
- Driving while using a smartphone is an __________ silly thing to do.
- Mr Smith was warmly welcomed when he arrived at the conference.
- There was heavy rain all night, so the streets were flooded.
- Many people raised questions about the government’s new immigration policy.
- Most developed countries are giving priority to the implementation of renewable energy.
- We made a reservation for a room in the hotel.
- She apologized profusely for arriving late for the meeting.
- I needed to have a haircut so I went to the barbers.
- Hello Mr. Smith, please have a seat.
- I was given invaluable advice about preparing for IELTS writing task 2.
- Driving while using a smartphone is an incredibly silly thing to do.