یکی از مهمترین مهارت ها در رایتینگ آیلتس، توانایی پارافریز کردن است. این مهارت هم بسته به دانش گرامر شما دارد و هم دانش لغات شما را شامل میشود. درست است که ما این موضوع را در زیرشاخهی رایتینگ بررسی میکنیم، اما اهمیت مسلط بودن بر این مهارت زمانی مشخص میشود که شما با ساختار آزمون آشنا باشید. چرا؟ چون به مرور در خواهید یافت که علاوه بر رایتینگ در بخشهای اسپیکینگ ، لیسنینگ و ریدینگ پارافریز جملات نمره شما را به طور قابل ملاحظهای بالا میبرد.
بنابراین، اگر پاراگراف نویسی به طور دقیق انجام شود، ممتحن تسلط شما را به لغات مختلف متوجه میشود. paraphrase را میتوان با استفاده از مترادف یا تغییر ساختار دستوری انجام داد. آموزش پارافریز تمرین زیادی را می طلبد، و شاید چندین ماه طول بکشد تا بتوانید نحوه صحیح مترادف جملات را بنویسید.
برای تقویت مهارت paraphrasing چند تمرین و مثال در ادامه آمده است. سعی کنید، خودتان جملات را پارافریز کنید، سپس برای دیدن نمونه جواب بر روی دکمه سبز کلیک کنید.
مثال برای پارافریز (شماره 1)
در ابتدا یک تمرین از نوع سوال problem-solution در موضوع چاقی آورده شده است. این پاراگراف را بخوانید، سپس با لغات گفته شده، یک پاراگراف جدید با همان معنی بنویسید.
Another problem that needs to be considered is that a lack of exercise contributes to obesity. As a result of leading a busy life and pressures at work, many people are just too tired to go to the gym or join a sports club. For example, after a hard day at work, many people prefer to just come home and sit in front of the TV and on weekends go out with friends. When people do have time off or a vacation they tend to relax and recover.
- being overweight / laze / hectic / an additional / free time / holiday
- should be / tough / as opposed to / citizens / taken into consideration / recreation club
- non stop / would rather / not enough / exhausted / take part in / responsibilities
- take it easy / due to / issue / activity / fat / thought about / adds to
‘..An additional issue that should be taken into consideration is that a lack of exercise adds to being overweight. Due to leading a busy life and responsibilities at work, many people are just too exhausted to go to the gym or take part in a sports club. For example, after a hard day at work, many people would rather just come home and sit in front of the TV and on weekends go out with friends. When people do have free time or a holiday, they tend to take it easy and recover as opposed to going to a gym…..’
1. ‘Another problem‘ can be changed to ‘An additional issue‘. The word “issue” is a good synonym for “problem” this is a common word that appears in IELTS essays.
2. ‘Needs to be’ we can use ‘should be‘, the meaning is quite similar.
3. Collocation: ‘taken into consideration‘ same meaning as ‘considered‘
4. ‘Adds to‘ is a good synonym for ‘Contributes to’
5. ‘Being overweight’ is better than saying ‘fat‘ as this has a very negative meaning.
6. The cohesive device ‘As a result of ‘ can be replaced with ‘Due to’
7. ‘Pressures at work‘ can be replaced with the collocation ‘Responsibilities at work‘ it’s not an exact synonym but it’s a good match.
8. ‘Tired‘ can be changed to a stronger adjective ‘ Exhausted’
9. ‘Join’ I used a phrasal verb ‘Take part in’ …this fits well in the sentence.
10. Grammar change: ‘Prefer‘ I changed to …’ Would rather‘
11. ‘Time off’ = ‘Free time‘
12. ‘Vacation‘ is American English and I changed it to ‘Holiday’ which is British English.
13. ‘Take it easy‘ is a collocation so I used this instead of ‘relax‘, it is a little informal for IELTS but it fits the sentence well.
14. ‘Rather than‘ can be changed to a more formal… ‘As opposed to‘
آموزش پارافریز با تمرین (شماره 2)
در اینجا یک سوال تسک 2 آمده است که شما باید با استفاده از لغات آورده شده، جمله پارافریز را بنویسید. در اینجا کلماتی وجود دارد که می توانید استفاده کنید، اما نیازی به استفاده از همه آنها ندارید. بعضی از کلمات با هم مطابقت ندارند.
People who live in big cities face a number of problems in their daily life.
What are the main issues people face in cities, how can these be tackled?
- citizens / people / living / residing / big / large
- huge / deal with / cope with / face up to /a few / a number of
- a lot of / issues / problems / daily life / day to day lives
- everyday life / life by the day / towns / urban areas
- metropolis / cities / suburbs
a) People residing in large urban areas have to deal with a lot of issues in their day-to-day lives.
b) There are a number of issues that people living in cities have to cope with in their everyday lives.
واژه “people” را بهتر است پارافریز نکنیم. بنابراین از کلمه “citizens” یا غیره استفاده نشده است.
بعضی از کلمات در اینجا قابل استفاده نیستند مانند “suburbs” یا “towns” یا “huge”، بنابراین از آن استفاده نشده است.
به یاد داشته باشید، لازم نیست هر کلمه ای به صورت پارافریز درآید، هیچ پاسخ خوب یا بدی برای رایتینگ وجود ندارد، این به واژگان شما بستگی دارد و اینکه چگونه می توانید از مترادف ها به درستی استفاده کنید. اطمینان حاصل کنید که معنی در همان حالت باقی بماند در غیر این صورت نمره خود را از دست می دهید.
تقویت مهارت paraphrasing (شماره 3)
در ادامه آموزش پارافریز، یک تمرین دیگر برای تقویت این مهارت آورده شده است. حتما ابتدا خودتان جمله زیر را پارافریز کنید، سپس نمونه جواب را ببینید.
The internet is a great source of information and has opened up opportunities for people to learn all around the world.
Is all information reliable on the internet? What could be done to control information online?
- The Internet / The World Wide Web / The net / big / massive
- large / huge / information / knowledge / data / know-how
- created / opened doors / opened / given / chances
- opportunities / ability / people / folks / humankind
- study / learn / get to know / worldwide / all over the world
- global / around the world
a) The Internet, which is a huge source of knowledge, has created opportunities for people worldwide to study.
b) The worldwide web is a massive source of information and has given people the ability to study all over the world.
بعضی از کلمات در اینجا به خوبی پیش نمی روند مانند “folks” که بیش از حد غیررسمی است و “humankind” که در این شرایط درست به نظر نمی رسد.
کلمات «data» و «know-how» در اینجا مطابقت خوبی ندارند و می توانند معنی را کمی تغییر دهند.
باز هم ، من کلمه “people” را نگه داشتهام زیرا پارافریز آن دشوار است.
تقویت مهارت paraphrasing (شماره 4)
در ادامه آموزش پارافریز، یک تمرین دیگر براب تقویت این مهارت آورده شده است. حتما ابتدا خودتان دو جمله زیر را پارافریز کنید، سپس نمونه جواب را ببینید.
Many people, when driving their cars, go over the speed limit in city centers. As a way of solving this, the government should put more speed cameras on major streets to put people off speeding. If this is done, more people who speed will be caught and this problem will eventually be solved.
- town / an answer / the law / install / motorway / stop / humans / put away
- authorities / exceed / deter from / directly / riding / ought to
- key / by doing this / arrested / vehicles resolved / citizens
- large / caught red-handed / speed prevention / increasing / urban
Many people, when driving their cars, exceed the speed limit in urban centers. As a way of solving this, the authorities ought to install more speed cameras on major streets to deter people from speeding. By doing this, more people who speed will be caught and this problem will eventually be resolved.
Common Mistakes and Explanations
- Collocation: drive a car, not ride a car. We use the verb “ride” with bicycles.
- A town is not a city. You can write “city center” or “urban center”. A town is much smaller and this essay is not about small towns and villages.
- The government can usually be paraphrased with the word “authorities”.
- The word “should” can be paraphrased as “ought to”. This is a common paraphrase.
- If you are writing about setting up or putting up equipment, you can use the word “install”.
- “to deter” is used to put people off committing a crime or an offense. It is actually a better word to use than “put off” for formal essay writing.
- “By doing this” and “As a way of solving this” both have the same meaning in this context. You can’t write “As an answer for solving this” – it isn’t correct English even though the meaning is the same.
- “people” are people. We rarely use the word “citizen” in an essay about transport. However, it would be acceptable to use it in the second sentence which refers to the government.
- “people” cannot be paraphrased as “humans” except in one context – please watch the video below to learn. Any student making this mistake is not studying effectively. The video below explains this very clearly so you should not be making this mistake.
- “caught red-handed” must be written as it is shown. You can never write “caught red”. There are three words in this idiom. However, this expression is mainly for theft or other crimes in which a person is caught face-to-face by the police. It can’t be used for speed offenses caught by the camera.
- “vehicles” is used when we don’t know what type of transport is being written about or when we refer to different types. This essay is about cars only which means you can’t use the word “vehicle”.
- This paragraph is about “streets”. This is not the same as a “motorway”. A motorway is a very large road outside a city that contains two or three lines in both directions for heavy traffic.
Results and Advice
- If you had one mistake, it is acceptable for band 7 or 8.
- If you have two or three mistakes, it is around band 6.
- If you are making more mistakes, it means you are not being careful enough with your language.
- More Mistakes = Lower Score
- You need to learn both the use and meaning of a word.
- Don’t aim for range until you can achieve accuracy.
- When you learn a noun or verb, learn the full collocation.
- When you learn a word, learn when you can and cannot use it.
- When you learn an idiom, learn if the words can be changed or not.
تقویت مهارت paraphrasing (شماره 5)
در ادامه آموزش پارافریز، یک تمرین دیگر براب تقویت این مهارت آورده شده است. حتما ابتدا خودتان دو جمله زیر را پارافریز کنید، سپس نمونه جواب را ببینید.
It is sometimes thought that it is beneficial for companies to sponsor sports events through advertising. By doing this, extra funding, which is often lacking, can be raised to support sports events and ensure that they continue to run. Furthermore, companies can also contribute clothing or equipment which supports the event, teams, and players.
- some citizens believe / some people believe / advantage / good
- advantageous / industries / businesses / sporting occasions
- matches / when we do this / in this way / extra cash / a lack of
- in short supply / sports matches / And / industries / businesses
- give / donate / attire / groups / performers / coordinate
a) Some people believe that it is advantageous for businesses to sponsor sports events through advertisements. In this way, extra funding, which is often in short supply, can be raised to support sports events and ensure they continue to run. Furthermore, companies can also contribute clothing or equipment which supports the event, team, and players.
b) Some people think it is advantageous for sports companies to use advertising to sponsor sports events, such as football matches or the Olympics. The extra funding from businesses is frequently much needed, as government funding can be limited. Sports events benefit from the extra finances as the money allows them to continue running and also, at times, provides teams and players with free sportswear or equipment, which are often too costly for them to buy.
Word Changes and Tips
- It is sometimes thought that = Some people believe that
- it is beneficial = it is advantageous
- companies = businesses (you should not paraphrase companies as industries)
- By doing this = In this way (you should not write “When we”, it is too informal for an IELTS essay)
- extra funding should not be paraphrased as extra cash (it is too informal in this context. Although, the word “cash” can be used in other situations, such as talking about using cash or cards)
- is often lacking = in short supply (you should not paraphrase it as “a lack of” because it is grammatically incorrect)
- sports events – it’s best not to paraphrase this. The word “sports occasion” is incorrect in meaning. Not all words can be paraphrased. But you can give examples of sports events instead. Some words will be repeated in English.
- Furthermore can’t be paraphrased as And. The reason is that “and” never goes at the start of a sentence in a formal essay.
- clothing should not be paraphrased as attire in this context. Certainly, the meaning is similar but the word attire does not relate to sportswear. The word “sportswear” is the best paraphrase to use.
- players should not be paraphrased as “performers”. The word “performers” is not used in the sport in this context.
تقویت مهارت paraphrasing (شماره 6)
در ادامه آموزش پارافریز، یک تمرین دیگر برای تقویت این مهارت آورده شده است. حتما ابتدا خودتان دو جمله زیر را پارافریز کنید، سپس نمونه جواب را ببینید.
Artists need a certain amount of freedom to develop their creativity. Some people think that artists should have total freedom to express any thoughts and ideas.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people believe that artists require freedom to be creative and therefore should have complete freedom to express any idea they have. In my opinion, while freedom of expression is important, art must be censored for violent or dangerous content.
Interesting background statements from students
- While it is generally understood that in order to be creative an artist must have some liberty to develop impulses and ideas creatively, some would argue that they should have full, and unrestricted, creative license.
- Comment: This is a good background statement but too long. It’s a waste of time to write a long background statement and it won’t boost your score. But otherwise, this is well-written with great vocabulary.
- It is considered by some that artists, in order to amplify their creativity, should be totally free to express their ideas and thoughts.
- Comment: This is the right length and well-written. Just one mistake – the word “amplify” is incorrect. Avoid over paraphrasing – just use the word “develop”.
- Since art requires a level of freedom to be creative, some believe that artists ought to be granted all the freedom of expression they need.
- Comment: This is a great background statement. It’s written very well. The only thing I would change is the last word. I would change it from “need” to “want”.
- It is true that a level of liberty is required by artists to enhance their imaginative skills, but some people believe that artists should have unrestricted freedom in giving voice to their opinion and beliefs.
- Comment: I like this background statement. Nicely written. However, there are grammar mistakes: required by artists (plural needed) / to voice their opinions and beliefs (plurals needed).
- It is widely believed that artists ought to be given absolute freedom of expression because freedom is essential in the development of their creative process.
- Comment: Well done 🙂
- Artists = creators
- this is wrong. The word artist means artist. You don’t try to paraphrase this.
- Artists = people from the art sphere
- A mistake. It is obvious that paraphrasing the word “artist” is difficult. In fact, you shouldn’t try. Not all words in English can be paraphrased.
- Some people = few people
- this is wrong. You could write “a few people” but not “few people”. The term “few people” means “not enough people. It has a different meaning entirely.
- It is always a topic of debate that
- shows the examiner you can’t write your own sentences and need to memorize phrases from a book. It will not help your score.
- creativity = ingeniousness
- completely wrong. Never paraphrase unless you are 100% sure. Mistakes will lower your score.